Prolific innovator Karl Drais invented the bicycle, first without pedals then, later, with. He also invented the typewriter w/ keyboard, first stenograph, and player-less piano.

Drais was a civil servant ineligible for patent protection but was given patents and a pension. However, he found himself on the wrong side of a Prussian war, going so far as to drop the noble title form his name as a tribute to the French revolution. Acting as a liberal against the royals caused him to eventually die famous but penniless.

In 1839, Kirpatrick Macmillan invented a more modern bicycle, with pedals and a chain that drive the rear wheel.

In 1885, John Starley invented the “safety bicycle,” the first incarnation that looks like a modern bicycle with same-sized spoked wheels, pedals between them, a seat, and a chain. The safety bicycle quickly became enormously popular.

German Gottlieb Daimler added an internal combustion engine to it, creating the modern motorcycle, also in 1885.