Machine Translation

Background In 1933, Soviet scientist Peter Troyanskii presented “the machine for the selection and printing of words when translating from one language to another” to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Soviet aparchnicks during the Stalin era declared the invention “useless” but allowed Troyanskii to continue his work. He died of natural causes in […]

Speech Recognition

Speech recognition is the ability of a computer to recognize the spoken word. “Alexa: read me something interesting from Innowiki.” “Duh human, everything on Innowiki is interesting or it wouldn’t be there.” Today, inexpensive pocket-sized phones connect to centralized servers and understand the spoken word in countless languages. Not so long ago, that was science […]

Autonomous Vehicles (Self-Driving Cars)

DARPA, the US government agency that invented the internet (among other things) created a contest to build a self-driving car. The first DARPA Grand Challenge, in 2004, was a 150 mile (240 km. route). The robot-car that drove the furthest before breaking down, built by Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU), lasted 11.78km. Undeterred, DARPA tried again. Subsequently, […]

Web Search Engine

Noteworthy early search engines include Archie, from 1990, that searched filenames, and Gopher, from 1991, that organized files. Early Search Engines In March 1994, Stanford students David Filo and Jerry Yang created “Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web.” Their website contained lists arranged by category of the burgeoning World Wide Web. Sites […]